The most common residential roof is a composition shingle roof. It is referred to as composition because it is made up of an asphalt mat woven with fiberglass threads. This is beneficial to the homeowner because fiberglass does not conduct energy. Opposed to the pure asphalt mats of the past, there is not a drastic difference in energy savings with a lighter colored roof. Choose the color that looks the best on your home. Focus more on the life of your shingle and what type of roof you would like to have installed.
The two most common shingles are 3 tab, also referred to as 20-25 year, and architectural laminated, also referred to as 30 year. A 3 tab roof has a flat look with an obvious separation between tabs. Architectural shingles have a dimensional look with no obvious separation between tabs. Besides the aesthetics, the main difference between the two shingles is that the architectural shingle is thicker and therefore has a longer natural life. They are also more resistant to hail and wind. More wind resistant because it is a heavier shingle and also because the manufacturer will require 6 nails as opposed to 4 for a 3 tab. More hail resistant because of the thickness. If your roof is being replaced due to storm damage then that is a perfect time to upgrade your shingles.
The next step up would be a 40-50 year shingle which is considered high impact or impact resistant (IR). An IR rating means that shingle is more resistant to hail or debris. This shingle can look like any architectural or designer shingle from the ground but it is the thickness that gives it its added impact resistance. It will require larger hail to damage these shingles and that means the roof is more likely to last its natural life without being replaced. Insurance companies are now rewarding homeowners for having these roofs installed. I have heard of IR discounts as high as 35%. Many providers also offer a new roof discount so whether your roof is impact resistant or not you should check with your provider after the roof is installed.